The medieval town of Manchester grew at the confluence of the River Irk and Irwell. The opening of the Bridgewater Canal signalled the start of the Industrial Revolution and the town was transformed into Cottonopolis. Railway links and the vast increase in the cotton and textile trade were major factors in the development of Cheetham Hill. Crumpsall was a pleasant village in the early nineteenth century, but the workhouse and the industry in Lower Crumpsall changed the area forever. Blackley, although an ancient township, was very much a backwater until dye works were developed in the Irk valley. Heaton Park sits on high ground overlooking the city, and the hall and parkland have long been a haven for the people of North Manchester. Moston was even more remote, and the land was only peat bog and barren. However, demolition, deindustrialisation and new development brought about permanent change.